Categorised | 6 Words

Malaysians first?

SOME years ago, while studying in the United Kingdom, one of The Nut Graph‘s team members had a discussion with a classmate from India about a fellow Indian Malaysian student.

TNG journalist: Ya, she celebrates Diwali, too. She’s a Hindu Indian.
Indian classmate:
Huh? She’s not Indian, she’s Malaysian!
Journalist:
Yes, she’s Malaysian, but she’s also Indian.
Classmate:
Oh, she has two passports —
one from Malaysia and one from India?
Journalist:
No, no, nothing like that. She’s ethnically
Indian but her nationality is Malaysian.
Classmate:
But that doesn’t make any sense. “Indian” is a
nationality. Like me — I’m Indian. How can she be
Indian when she’s Malaysian?

How, indeed?

(Pic by John Tomaselli / sxc.hu)

For in India, there is no Indian ethnicity, only Indian nationality. There are ethnic groups such as Tamil, Telugu, Malayalee, Sindhi and so on, each with its own distinct language, culture and history. Indian Malaysians still identify with their respective ethnic groupings till today. So, there are Tamils, Telugus, Malayalees and Sindhis, but no such thing as Indians, except if one is referring to an Indian national. Some Ceylonese Tamils don’t consider themselves Indians, and prefer to be known as “lain-lain”.

Similarly, in China, there are ethnic Han Chinese, consisting of dialect groups such as the Hokkien, Hainanese, Cantonese and Foo Chows. But the Han are only one of over 50 ethnic groups in China. So most Chinese Malaysians should strictly speaking be called ethnic Han, not Chinese, unless one was referring to citizens of China.

As for Malay Malaysians, one need only study the following table to note the British’s haphazard and completely arbitrary attempts at classifying diverse groups under the heading “Malay”:

1871 1891 1911

Straits Settlements (SS)

1911

Federated Malay States (FMS)

1931

Europeans and Americans (plus 18 sub-
categories)

Europeans and Americans (plus 19 sub-
categories)

Europeans (plus 31 sub-
categories and Americans)

Europeans (plus 17 sub-
categories)

Europeans (plus 24 sub-
categories)

Malay races:

Boyanese
Bugis
Dyaks

Javanese

Jawipekans

Malays

Manilamen



Malay races:

Aboriginies
Achinese

Boyanese

Bugis

Dyaks

Javanese

Jawipekans

Malays

Manilamen


Malay and other allied races:

Achinese
Amboinese

Balinese

Bandong

Bahjarese

Bantamese

Batak

Borneo

Boyanese

Bugis

Bundu

Dyaks

Dusuns

Javanese

Jawipekans

Kadayans

Korinchi

Malays

Rawanese

Sulu

Sundanese

Tutong

Malay races:

Malay
Javanese

Sakais

Banjarese

Boyanese

Mendeling

Kerinchi

Jambi

Achinese

Bugis

Malay races:

Malays
Javanese

Boyanese

Achinese

Bataks

Minangkabaus

Korinchis

Jambis

Palembang

Other Sumatrans

Riau-Linggans

Banjarese

Dutch Borneo

Bugis

Dayaks

Sakais

Others

Also natives from Dutch East Indies

Chinese


Chinese races:

Cantonese
Hokkiens

Hylams
Khehs
Nanyangs
Teo-Chews


Chinese:

Straits-born
China-born

Chinese tribes:

Cantonese
Kheh
Tie Chiu Kheh
Hokkien
Hiu Hua
Hok Chiu
Tie Chiu
Hailam
Kwong Sai


Chinese tribes:

Hokkien
Tiu Chiu
Hakka (Kheh)
Hok Chia
Cantonese
Hailam
Hok Chiu
Kwongsai


Hindus

Bengalees and other Indian races not specified

Tamils and other Indian races:

Bengalees
Burmese
Parsees


Indians:

India-born
Straits-born
Born elsewhere

Indians
by race:

Tamil
Telugu
Punjabi
Bengali
Malayali
Hindustani
Afghan
Gujerati
Maharatta
Burmese

Indians
by race:

Tamils
Telegu
Malayalam
Punjabi
United Provinces
Burmese
Bengal
Bombay
Bihar
Nepal


Source: Charles Hirshman, The Meaning and Measurement of Ethnicity in Malaysia, Journal of Asian Studies, 1987,
as referred to in The Lost Tribes of Malaysia: The construction of race politics from the colonial era to the present,
by Dr Farish Noor

Multiracial coalition Putera-AMCJA proposed in 1947 that we all be called Melayu, regardless of ethnicity or religion. As documented in Fahmi Reza’s 10 Tahun Sebelum Merdeka, eventual MCA founder Tun Tan Cheng Lock also agreed to this after much deliberation with his Malay coalition partners.

Their proposals were rejected by the British, who preferred to negotiate with Umno. Britain was intent on establishing the Federation of Malaya, which would maintain British power. By the time Malaya was given independence in 1957, the ethnic constructs of Malay, Chinese and Indian were cemented in place.

Fifty-two years later, we’re still stuck with these definitions and still arguing about whether we’re Malaysian first, Malay first, or some other racial categorisation. And for those who don’t fit into “Melayu, Cina atau India”, we call them “dan lain-lain” or the nifty acronym “DLL”. And since these DLL don’t fit neatly into any one category, some of us go so far as to ask, “Actually, what are you, ah?”

This constant need to define “what are you” in relation to “what I am” has polarised our nation and created an “us” versus “them” mentality among Malaysians. By seeing our fellow Malaysians only as “Malay” or “Chinese” or “Indian”, we propagate the old colonial constructs that make it easier to provoke discontent towards the “other”, who are not like “us”.

But are “we” really so alike, and are “they” really so different? Is it always easier to identify with those from our own race? Especially when our so-called races were artificially created in the first place?

Amartya Sen (Pic by Elke Wetzig / Wiki commons)

As economist and philosopher Amartya Sen points out in his book Identity and Violence, classifying people with a single identity ignores the other identities they may have and value. These include, for example, “class, gender, profession, language, science, morals and politics”.

Is it time we stopped harping on our respective races and developed a broader view of our fellow Malaysians? Is that possible if the Barisan Nasional government continues to practise race-based politics and play up racial rhetoric? How do you see yourselves as Malaysians? Tell us in six words only. Here are some of the newsroom’s thoughts:

Ding Jo-Ann

What’s wrong with being Malaysian first?

Don’t want to be Chinese first.

Don’t call me banana, I’m Malaysian.

“Us” and “them” isn’t so straightforward.

Koh Lay Chin:

Only “Malaysians” when we are overseas?

At home I am a category.

Race = My sprint to KFC

Jacqueline Ann Surin:

Who defines what a “Malaysian” is?

“Dan lain-lain” = “Others”. ”Malaysian” better.

Melayu, Cina, India. Dicipta oleh British.

Melayu, Cina, India. Disokong oleh BN.

Race is a colonial construct, duh!

Imagine, even after independence, still colonised.

Why does BN racialise citizens’ identity?

Shanon Shah:

Prioritising multiple identities: stupid. I’m everything.

In old hikayat, Malays more accommodating.

Confusing citizenship with race. False dilemma?

Curious first. Critical second. Malay? Maybe.

This land was cosmopolitan. What happened?

Malaysian despite Muhyiddin and Kit Siang.


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27 Responses to “Malaysians first?”

  1. KohJL says:

    Stupid forms! I’ll leave “Race” blank!

  2. Sean says:

    “If I’m racist, blame the whites!”

  3. Naoko says:

    I’m of the human race. Period.

    DLLs not as confused as others.

    “Others” = Human Beings = WIN!

    Yes, am categorised as DLL. So?

    DLL means I am chameleon, heh.

  4. Farish A Noor says:

    Only race I like: horse race

    Race you to a non-racist future!

    Racy pants – good. Racist politics – bad.

  5. bambam297 says:

    I prefer Malaysian first, race second!

  6. U-Jean says:

    Can I be a Penangite first?

  7. ilann says:

    Policies like these, better be Sabahan.

  8. ilann says:

    I didn’t sign up for this.

  9. siew eng says:

    Did you hear about the Machas?

  10. Nadia Minah says:

    Human rights and global citizenship first.

    Excellent piece with excellent research homework.

  11. Jen says:

    Ancestry no excuse for separate privileges.

    You don’t respect indigenous rights anyway.

    ‘Suku’ for heritage, not creating entitlements.

  12. Jen says:

    Ooooo, want to resurrect race: ‘Borneo’.

    All thanks to The Nut Graph.

  13. amir says:

    Biologists say inbreeding is not healthy.

    Is race important? Don’t talk sh*t!

    Rojak is good for building nations.

  14. Keruah says:

    “Race”: a cultural and political construct

  15. Chuah Guat Eng says:

    Old wine spoiling in new bottles.

  16. Peter says:

    Old people corrupting the new people.

    Old mindset out, fresh thinkers in.

    Complete revamp: the only way out.

    The future rests with our young.

  17. Peter says:

    History: the obstacle to our future.

  18. Ida Bakar says:

    On Mykad I am Malay, but…

    Ratnawati second name, must be Indian.

    Being Penangite I must be mamak.

    Having ‘posh’ accent, must be Eurasian.

    The truth is I am Malaysian.

  19. Anak Angkat Tok Janggut says:

    “Malay first” implies “first class” Malaysian.

  20. Veteran says:

    On borang: Race,”human”; sex, “please!”

  21. Main says:

    Put whatever, our home is Malaysia.

  22. Dinesh says:

    Multiracial or multi-racist? Qualification or kulitfication?

    Chindians how? Chinese or Indian first?

    Still colonised mindset after supposed Merdeka.

    I prefer a raise to race!

  23. Muthukrishnan says:

    All those born here are Malaysian.

    Don’t allow religion to manipulate politics.

    Ban racist political parties. Absolutely Malaysian.

  24. lkl says:

    Still race after all these years.

    No, with Muhyiddin, Malays not first!

  25. Mimjamil says:

    Hulu Selangor candidate experts in race.

  26. tebing tinggi says:

    1 sekolah 1 bahasa 1 Malaysia

  27. Sivin Kit says:

    I am a Multi-mosaic Malaysian Human


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